The 2018 Monarch Conservation Implementation Plan is now publically available. This annually updated plan, derived from the 2008 North American Monarch Conservation Plan, identifies and prioritizes monarch conservation action items in the U.S. that will help us reach our goal of restoring the monarch butterfly population to a sustainable level. Any individual or entity is encouraged to use this plan to identify and integrate priority monarch conservation actions into their existing or planned efforts.
The United States has a strong monarch conservation movement that continues to grow. We are excited to be part of this movement, and recognize this is a critical moment in history for monarchs and other pollinators. Sixteen partners have joined the MJV in 2017, and monarchs continue to gain attention and interest from all sectors.
It will take continued partnership and coordination to reach these ambitious goals and preserve the monarch migration for generations to come. As a national coordinating body, the MJV will continue to help identify opportunities for collaboration between different entities, and support and guide conservation actions carried out by our partners.
This plan serves as a guiding document to support ongoing or new conservation actions, recognizing that it will take an “all hands on deck” approach to reach our nation’s monarch population and habitat targets. The plan may also serve to inform other initiatives in an effort to coordinate monarch conservation efforts throughout the U.S.
The primary job of the adult stage is to reproduce—to mate and lay the eggs that will become the next generation. Monarchs do not mate until they are three to eight days old. When they mate they remain together from one afternoon until early the next morning—often up to 16 hours! Females begin laying eggs immediately after their first mating, and both sexes can mate several times during their lives. Adults in summer generations live from two to five weeks.
Each year, the final generation of monarchs, adults that emerge in late summer and early fall, has an additional job. They migrate to overwintering grounds, either in central Mexico for eastern monarchs or in California for western monarchs. Here they spend the winter clustered in trees until weather and temperature conditions allow them to return to their breeding grounds. These adults can live up to nine months.
Male and female monarchs can be distinguished easily. Males have a black spot on a vein on each hind wing that is not present on the female. These spots are made of specialized scales which produce a chemical used during courtship in many species of butterflies and moths, although such a chemical does not seem to be important in monarch courtship. The ends of the abdomens are also shaped differently in males and females, and females often look darker than males and have wider veins on their wings.
1) Male monarch abdomen 2) Female monarch abdomen
3) Female monarch wings 4) Male monarch wings
The body of an adult butterfly is divided into the same major parts as the larva: head, thorax, and abdomen. There are four main structures on the adult head: eyes,antennae, palpi, and proboscis. A butterfly’s relatively enormous compound eyes are made up of thousands of ommatidia, each of which senses light and images. The two antennae and the two palpi, which are densely covered with scales, sense molecules in the air and gives butterflies a sense of smell. The straw-like proboscis is the butterfly’s tongue, through which it sucks nectar and water for nourishment. When not in use, the butterfly curls up its proboscis.
1) Adult monarch compound eyes, 2) Adult monarch tarsus (Photos: Michelle Solensky)
3) Adult monarch proboscis (Photo: Sonia Altizer), 4) Adult monarch wings scales (Photo: Michelle Solensky)
The thorax is made up of three segments, each of which has a pair of legs attached to it. The second and third segments also have a pair of wings attached to them. The legs end in tarsi (singular, tarsus), which grip vegetation and flowers when the butterfly lands on a plant. Organs on the back of the tarsi "taste" sweet liquids. Monarchs and other nymphalid butterflies look like they only have four legs because the two front legs are tiny and curl up next to the thorax.
1) Monarch aposematic coloration 2) Monarch nectaring 3) Monarch on Aster
Just before they pupate, monarch larvae spin a silk mat from which they hang upside down by their last pair of prolegs. The silk comes from the spinneret on the bottom of the head. As it sheds its skin for the last time, the caterpillar stabs a stem into the silk pad to hang. This stem extends from its rear end and is called the cremaster.
While the process of complete metamorphosis looks like four very distinct stages, continuous changes actually occur within the larva. The wings and other adult organs develop from tiny clusters of cells already present in the larva, and by the time the larva pupates, the major changes to the adult form have already begun. During the pupal stage this transformation is completed. Many moth caterpillars (but not all) spin a silken cocoon to protect them as pupae. Butterflies do not do this, and their pupa stage is often called a chrysalis. While it is fine to refer to the previous stage as either larva or caterpillar, it is not correct to call a butterfly pupa a cocoon, since it does not have a silken covering.
Just before the monarchs emerge, their black, orange, and white wing patterns are visible through the pupa covering. This is not because the pupa becomes transparent; it is because the pigmentation on the scales only develops at the very end of the pupa stage. This stage of development lasts eight to fifteen days under normal summer conditions.
Upper left to bottom right: Monarch larva puapating (Photo: www.naturallycuriouswithmaryholland.wordpress.com)
1st instar (Kristen Kuda)
|Body Length||2 to 6 mm|
|Body width||0.5 to 1.5 mm|
|Front Tentacles||Small bumps|
|Back tentacles||Barely visible|
|Head Capsule||0.6 mm in diameter|
A newly-hatched monarch larva is pale green or grayish-white, shiny, and almost translucent. It has no stripes or other markings. The head looks black, with lighter spots around the antennae and below the mouthparts, and may be wider than the body. There is a pair of dark triangular patches between the head and front tentacles which contain setae, or hairs. The body is covered with sparse setae. Older first instar larvae have dark stripes on a greenish background.
After hatching, the larva eats its eggshell (chorion). It then eats clusters of fine hairs on the bottom of the milkweed leaf before starting in on the leaf itself. It feeds in a circular motion, often leaving a characteristic, arc-shaped hole in the leaf. First (and second) instar larvae often respond to disturbance by dropping off the leaf on a silk thread, and hanging suspended in the air. Time in this larval stage is usually 1-3 days, temperature dependent.
Image: One first instar larva.
2nd instar (Kristen Kuda)
|Body Length||6 to 9 mm|
|Body Width||1 to 2 mm|
|Front Tentacles||0.3 mm|
|Back Tentacles||Small knobs|
|Head Capsule||0.8 mm in diameter|
Second instar larvae have a clear pattern of black (or dark brown), yellow and white bands, and the body no longer looks transparent and shiny. An excellent characteristic to use in distinguishing first and second instar larvae is a yellow triangle on the head and two sets of yellow bands around this central triangle. The triangular spots behing the head do not have the long setae present in the spots on the first instar larvae. The setae on the body are more abundant, and look shorter and more stubble-like than those on first instar larvae. Time in this larval stage is usually 1-3 days, temperature dependent.
Image: Two second instar larvae.
3rd instar (Kristen Kuda)
|Body Length||10 to 14 mm|
|Body Width||2 to 3.5 mm|
|Front Tentacles||1.7 mm|
|Back Tentacles||0.9 mm|
|Head Capsule||1.5 mm in diameter|
The black and yellow bands on the abdomen of a third instar larva are darker and more distinct than those of the second instar, but the bands on the thorax are still indistinct. The triangular patches behind the head are gone, and have become thin lines that extend below the spiracle. The yellow triangle on the head is larger, and the yellow stripes are more visable. The first set of thoracic legs are smaller than the other two, and is closer to the head. Time in this larval stage is usually 1-3 days, temperature dependent.
Third instar larvae usually feed using a distinct cutting motion on leaf edges. Unlike first and second instar larvae, third (and later) instars respond to disturbance by dropping off the leaf and curling into a tight ball. Monarch biologist Fred Urquhart called this behavior "playing possum."
4th instar (Kristen Kuda)
|Body Length||13 to 25 mm|
|Body Width||2.5 to 5 mm|
|Front Tentacles||5 mm|
|Back Tentacles||2 mm|
|Head Capsule||2.2 mm in diameter|
Fourth instar larvae have a distinct banding pattern on the thorax which is not present in third instars. The first pair of legs is even closer to the head, and there are white spots on the prolegs that were less conspicuous in the third instar.
Male and female larvae can't be distinguished by the naked eye until the pupal stage. However, male and female respective reproductive organs are visible in dissected, third, fourth, and fifth instars. Time in this larval stage is usually 1-3 days, temperature dependent.
5th instar (Kristen Kuda)
|Body Length||25 to 45 mm|
|Body Width||5 to 8 mm|
|Front Tentacles||11 mm|
|Back Tentacles||4 mm|
|Head Capsule||3.5 mm in diameter|
The body pattern and colors of fifth instar larvae are even more vivid than they were in the fourth instar, and the black bands looks wider and almost velvety. The front legs look much smaller than the other two pairs, and are even closer to the head. There are distinct white dots on the prolegs, and the body looks quite plump, especially just prior to pupating.
Fifth instar monarch larvae often chew a shallow notch in the petiole of the leaf they are eating, which causes the leaf to fall into a vertical position. They move much farther and faster than other instars, and are often found far from milkweed plants as they seek a site for pupating. Time in this larval stage is usually 3-5 days, temperature dependent.
Left: 5th instar on milkweed leaf
Right: 5th instar larvae can vary greatly in size; both of these larvae are 5th instars. (Photo: Kip Kiphart)
The word larva refers to the growth stage of all insects with complete metamorphosis. Caterpillar refers only to a butterfly or moth in this stage. Either word is correct, but most scientists say larva. It is during this stage that monarchs do all of their growing; in fact this is just about all that they do. These "eating machines" take few breaks even for resting. The entire larval stage in monarchs lasts from nine to fourteen days under normal summer temperatures.
Larvae, just like all other insects, have three distinct body parts: the head, thorax, and abdomen. The head has a pair of short antennae, mouthparts (upper lip, mandibles, and lower lip), and six pairs of simple eyes, called ocelli. Even with all of these eyes, the caterpillar’s vision is poor. The antennae help to guide the weak-eyed caterpillar as it moves around, and the maxillary palps (sensory organs), help direct food into its jaws. The spinneret produces silk, which the caterpillar uses to anchor itself when needed and to create the silk pad it uses to hang from when it pupates.
Each thoracic segment has a pair of jointed, or true legs, while some of the abdominal segments have false legs, or prolegs. Monarchs have five pairs of prolegs. The prolegs have tiny hooks on them that hold the larva onto its silk mat or leaf. The fleshy tentacles at the front and rear ends of monarch larvae are not antennae, but they do function as sense organs.
Like other insects, monarchs obtain oxygen through holes in the sides of their thorax and abdomen called spiracles. The spiracles are connected to a network of long air tubes calledtracheae, which carry oxygen throughout the body.
As the caterpillar grows and becomes too large for its skin, it molts, or sheds its skin. The head capsule is the first part of the old skin to come off during the molting process. Then the old skin peels back from the front of the caterpillar. At first, the new skin is very soft, and provides little support or protection. This new skin soon hardens and molds itself to the caterpillar. The shed skin is often eaten before the caterpillar ingests more plant food! The intervals between molts are called instars.
More information is available for each instar, visit Guide to Monarch Instars.
While butterflies and moths do not care for their young after hatching, they do lay their eggs on the appropriate host plant, which will be food for the newly hatched caterpillars. For monarchs, that’s milkweed! Monarch females usually lay a single egg on a milkweed plant, often on the bottom of a leaf near the top of the plant. Eggs are only about the size of a pinhead or pencil tip and are off-white or yellow, characterized by longitudinal ridges that run from the tip to the base. The eggs hatch about four days after they are laid.
As females lay their eggs, they secrete a small amount of glue to attach the eggs directly to the plant. Female monarch butterflies lay 300-500 eggs over two to five weeks of egg laying, with a record in captivity of 1179!
Each egg is formed inside the female prior to fertilization, including the hard outer shell, called the chorion, which protects the developing larva inside. The shell is lined with a layer of wax, which helps keep the egg from drying out. The eggs have tiny funnel-shaped openings at one end, called micropyles. These holes penetrate all the way through the shell allowing sperm to enter, since eggs form their hard shell prior to fertilization. The raised areas on the egg shell are called ridges, they are also formed before the egg is laid. The dark head of the developing caterpillar can be seen near the top of the egg prior to emergence.
Monarchs remain in the egg stage of their life-cycle for 3-5 days, depending on the temperature.
|1.2 mm||0.9 mm|
On public and private lands, MJV partners are working with various landowners and land managers to restore monarch breeding and overwintering habitats. Monarch caterpillars need milkweed to grow and develop, and adults need nectar to give them energy and overwintering sites in which to rest. The MJV works to improve and maintain habitat for monarchs in each stage of their life cycle. View Projects »
While monarchs have a growing number of supporters ready to plant milkweed to support monarch populations, it is difficult to find native milkweed plants and seeds in many parts of the United States. MJV Partners Monarch Watch, the Xerces Society, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service are working to increase both the supply of and demand for locally-sourced milkweed plants and seeds for gardens and larger restoration projects. Every milkweed planted can make a difference. View Projects »
Through scientific research and monitoring, we will be able to better understand North American monarch population trends, and the many factors influencing their decline. The MJV supports the expansion of monarch monitoring programs, data analyses to help understand monarch conservation issues, and research to inform and improve the success of habitat restoration efforts. View Projects »
It is only through knowledge that people will come to love and protect creatures great and small. All MJV partners are working to share information about monarchs, their migration, and opportunities to monitor and protect them, with teachers, land managers, decision makers, and volunteers. View Projects »
Monarchs to the west of the Rocky Mountains overwinter along the Pacific coastline of California and move inland in the spring to reproduce. Research, monitoring, and land management planning in this area are needed to sustain both breeding and overwintering habitats for the western monarch population. View Projects »